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Front Immunol. 2013 Jul 26;4:216. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00216. eCollection 2013.

Trypanosoma cruzi Entrance through Systemic or Mucosal Infection Sites Differentially Modulates Regional Immune Response Following Acute Infection in Mice.

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Laboratory of Thymus Research, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.


Acute Chagas disease is characterized by a systemic infection that leads to the strong activation of the adaptive immune response. Outbreaks of oral contamination by the infective protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi are frequent in Brazil and other Latin American countries, and an increased severity of clinical manifestations and mortality is observed in infected patients. These findings have elicited questions about the specific responses triggered after T. cruzi entry via mucosal sites, possibly modulating local immune mechanisms, and further impacting regional and systemic immunity. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of differential lymphoid organ responses in experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection.


T cell activation; Trypanosoma cruzi; cytokine; lymph nodes; spleen

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