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J Pediatr. 2013 Oct;163(4):1134-9.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.05.045. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Efficacy of flow restrictors in limiting access of liquid medications by young children.

Author information

1
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess whether adding flow restrictors (FRs) to liquid medicine bottles can provide additional protection against unsupervised medication ingestions by young children, even when the child-resistant closure is not fully secured.

STUDY DESIGN:

In April and May 2012, we conducted a block randomized trial with a convenience sample of 110 3- and 4-year-old children from 5 local preschools. Participants attempted to remove test liquid from an uncapped bottle with an FR and a control bottle without an FR (with either no cap or an incompletely closed cap).

RESULTS:

All but 1 (96%; 25 of 26) of the open control bottles and 82% (68 of 83) of the incompletely closed control bottles were emptied within 2 minutes. Only 6% (7 of 110) of the bottles with FRs were emptied during the 10-minute testing period, none before 6 minutes. Overall, children removed less liquid from the bottles with FRs than from the open or incompletely closed control bottles without FRs (both P < .001). All children assigned open control bottles and 90% of those assigned incompletely closed control bottles removed ≥ 25 mL of liquid. In contrast, 11% of children removed ≥ 25 mL of liquid from uncapped bottles with FRs. Older children (aged 54-59 months) were more successful than younger children at removing ≥ 25 mL of liquid (P = .002) from bottles with FRs.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that adding FRs to liquid medicine bottles limits the accessibility of their contents to young children and could complement the safety provided by current child-resistant packaging.

KEYWORDS:

CDC; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; ED; Emergency department; FR; Flow restrictor; OTC; Over-the-counter; PPPA; Poison Prevention Packaging Act

PMID:
23896185
PMCID:
PMC4654181
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.05.045
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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