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JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2014 Jan;38(1):70-85. doi: 10.1177/0148607113496280. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Incidence, prevention, and treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and intestinal failure-associated liver disease in infants and children: a systematic review.

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1
Department of Surgery, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cholestasis is a significant life-threatening complication in children on parenteral nutrition (PN). Strategies to prevent/treat PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) have reached moderate success with little supporting evidence. Aims of this systematic review were (1) to determine the incidence of PNAC/IFALD in children receiving PN for ≥ 14 days and (2) to review the efficacy of measures to prevent/treat PNAC/IFALD.

METHODS:

Of 4696 abstracts screened, 406 relevant articles were reviewed, and studies on children with PN ≥ 14 days and cholestasis (conjugated bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dL) were included. Analyzed parameters were (1) PNAC/IFALD incidence by decade and by PN length and (2) PNAC/IFALD prevention and treatment (prospective studies).

RESULTS:

Twenty-three articles (3280 patients) showed an incidence of 28.2% and 49.8% of PNAC and IFALD, respectively, with no evident alteration over the last decades. The incidence of PNAC was directly proportional to the length of PN (from 15.7% for PN ≤ 1 month up to 60.9% for PN ≥ 2 months; P < .0001). Ten studies on PNAC met inclusion criteria. High or intermediate-dose of oral erythromycin and aminoacid-free PN with enteral whey protein gained significant benefits in preterm neonates (P < .05, P = .003, and P < .001, respectively). None of the studies reviewed met inclusion criteria for treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidence of PNAC/IFALD in children has no obvious decrease over time. PNAC is directly correlated to the length of PN. Erythromycin and aminoacid-free PN with enteral whey protein have shown to prevent PNAC in preterm neonates. There is a lack of high-quality prospective studies, especially on IFALD.

KEYWORDS:

child; cholestasis; intestinal failure; liver disease; parenteral nutrition

PMID:
23894170
DOI:
10.1177/0148607113496280
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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