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Thorax. 2013 Nov;68(11):990-6. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203623. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

The role of vitamin D supplementation in the risk of developing pneumonia: three independent case-control studies.

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1
Department of Internal Medicine, St Antonius Hospital, , Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin D plays a role in host defence against infection. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections in children and adults. This study aimed to examine whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with a lower pneumonia risk in adults.

METHODS:

Three independent case-control studies were performed including a total of 33 726 cases with pneumonia in different settings with respect to hospitalisation status and a total of 105 243 controls. Cases and controls were matched by year of birth, gender and index date. The major outcome measure was exposure to vitamin D supplementation at the time of pneumonia diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute ORs for the association between vitamin D supplementation and occurrence of pneumonia.

RESULTS:

Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with a lower risk of pneumonia. In studies 1 and 2, adjustment for confounding resulted in non-significant ORs of 1.814 (95% CI 0.865 to 3.803) and 1.007 (95% CI 0.888 to 1.142), respectively. In study 3, after adjustment for confounding, the risk of pneumonia remained significantly higher among vitamin D users (OR 1.496, 95% CI 1.208 to 1.853). Additional analyses showed significant modification of the association through co-use of corticosteroids and drugs that affect bone mineralisation. For patients using these drugs, ORs below one were found combined with higher ORs for patients not using these drugs.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study showed no preventive association between vitamin D supplementation and the risk of pneumonia in adults.

KEYWORDS:

Respiratory Infection

PMID:
23892991
DOI:
10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203623
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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