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Med Glas (Zenica). 2013 Aug;10(2):397-9.

The relationship between cigarette smoking and oral colonization with Candida species in healthy adult subjects.

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Dental Clinic, Health Centre "Dom zdravlja Novi Grad", Public Institution Medical Centre of Sarajevo Canton, 2Institute for Clinical Microbiology, University Clinical Centre of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 3Department of Otolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cantonal Hospital Zenica, 4Department of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Sarajevo; Bosnia and Herzegovina.


The aim of the study was to determine presence of Candida species in oral cavity and to investigate their relation with the smoking habit. This prospective study included 140 healthy respondents (75 male and 65 female) divided into two groups according to the age: group I (from 18 to 30 years) and group II (from 31 to 60 years). In 77 (55%) cases the respondents were smokers. Group I included 37 (52.8%) and group II 40 (57.1%) smokers. There were significantly more male smokers, 49 (62.3%). Candida spp. were identified in 40 (29%) healthy respondents (carriers). The most frequently isolated was Candida albicans. Patients with the presence of oral Candida were smokers in 33 (82.5%) cases, while patients without Candida were smokers in 44 (44%) cases. Smoking has an influence on oral colonization with Candida species. Both have a bad influence on oral health.

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