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Chronic Illn. 2014 Mar;10(1):60-73. doi: 10.1177/1742395313496590. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Characteristics of diabetic patients associated with achieving and maintaining blood pressure targets in the Adherence and Intensification of Medications program.

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1Center for Clinical Management Research, Veterans Affairs (VA) Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI.



To determine patient characteristics associated with achieving and sustaining blood pressure (BP) targets in the Adherence and Intensification of Medications program, a program led by pharmacists trained in motivational interviewing and authorized to make BP medication changes.


We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with diabetes and persistent hypertension in Kaiser Permanente and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Using two-level logistic regression, baseline survey data from 458 program participants were examined to determine patient characteristics associated with (1) discharge from the program with a target BP (short-term success) and (2) maintenance of the target BP over a nine-month period (long-term success).


In multivariable analyses, patients who screened positive for depression or had a higher baseline systolic BP were less likely to achieve short-term success (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.93], p = 0.03; AOR 0.94 [0.91-0.97], p < 0.01; respectively). Patients who reported at baseline one or more barriers to medication adherence were less likely to achieve long-term success (AOR 0.50 [0.26-0.94], p = 0.03).


Although almost 90% of patients achieved short-term success, only 28% achieved long-term success. Baseline barriers to adherence were associated with lack of long-term success and could be the target of maintenance programs for patients who achieve short-term success.


Blood pressure; diabetes; medication adherence; questionnaires

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