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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Nov;67(2):189-97. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.07.007. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Genotoxicity of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™).

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Niigata Research Laboratory, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc., 182 Tayuhama, Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112, Japan.


The genotoxic potential of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™) was evaluated in a battery of genotoxicity tests. The results of the bacterial mutation assay (Ames test) were negative. Weak positive results were obtained in 2 separate in vitro chromosomal aberration test in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblasts. Upon testing in an in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, no genotoxic activity of PQQ was noted. In the in vivo micronucleus assay in mice, PQQ at doses up to 2,000 mg/kg body weight demonstrated that no genotoxic effects are expressed in vivo in bone marrow erythrocytes. The weak responses in the in vitro test CHL cells were considered of little relevance under conditions of likely human exposure. PQQ disodium was concluded to have no genotoxic activity in vivo.


-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino] acridine 2HCl; 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide; 2-aminoanthracene; 2AA; AF-2; Ames test; B[a]P; CHL; Chinese hamster lung; Chromosome aberration test; DMSO; GSH; Genotoxicity; ICH; ICR-191; International Conference on Harmonization; MI; MMC; MMS; Micronucleus test; N-methyl-D-aspartate; NGF; NMDA; NaN(3); PQQ; Pyrroloquinoline quinone; US; United States; benzo[a]pyrene; body weight; bw; dimethyl sulfoxide; glutathione; methyl methanesulfonate; mitomycin C; mitotic index; nerve growth factor; pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt; revolutions per minute; rpm; sodium azide

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