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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 Sep;42(3):250-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.06.006. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Population pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in patients affected by severe Gram-positive infections.

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1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy. antonello.dipaolo@med.unipi.it

Abstract

A population pharmacokinetic analysis of daptomycin was performed based on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from 58 patients receiving doses of 4-12 mg/kg for the treatment of severe Gram-positive infections. At a daily dose of 8 mg/kg, daptomycin plasma concentrations (mean ± S.D.) were 76.9 ± 9.8 mg/L at the end of infusion and 52.7 ± 15.4 mg/L and 11.4 ± 5.4 mg/L at 0.5 h and 23 h after drug administration, respectively. The final model was a one-compartmental model with first-order elimination, with estimated clearance (CL) of 0.80 ± 0.14 L/h and a volume of distribution (V(d)) of 0.19 ± 0.05 L/kg. Creatinine clearance (CL(Cr)) was identified as having a significant influence on daptomycin CL, and a decrease in CL(Cr) of 30 mL/min from the median value (80 mL/min) was associated with a reduction of daptomycin CL from 0.80 L/h to 0.73 L/h. These results confirm that the presence of severe infection may be associated with an altered disposition of daptomycin, with an increased Vd. MICs were available in 41 patients and results showed that 38 and 31 subjects achieved AUC/MIC values associated with bacteriostatic (>400) and bactericidal effects (>800), respectively. Of note, 31 of these 41 subjects experienced a clinical improvement or were cured. Although daptomycin pharmacokinetics may be influenced by infections, effective AUC/MIC values were achieved in the majority of patients. The present model may be applied in clinical settings for a TDM routine on the basis of a sparse blood sampling protocol.

KEYWORDS:

Daptomycin; Gram-positive infections; Population pharmacokinetics

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