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Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2013;305:253-301. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407695-2.00006-8.

New insights into the dynamics of plant cell nuclei and chromosomes.

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Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba, Japan.


The plant lamin-like protein NMCP/AtLINC and orthologues of the SUN-KASH complex across the nuclear envelope (NE) show the universality of nuclear structure in eukaryotes. However, depletion of components in the connection complex of the NE in plants does not induce severe defects, unlike in animals. Appearance of the Rabl configuration is not dependent on genome size in plant species. Topoisomerase II and condensin II are not essential for plant chromosome condensation. Plant endoreduplication shares several common characteristics with animals, including involvement of cyclin-dependent kinases and E2F transcription factors. Recent finding regarding endomitosis regulator GIG1 shed light on the suppression mechanism of endomitosis in plants. The robustness of plants, compared with animals, is reflected in their genome redundancy. Spatiotemporal functional analyses using chromophore-assisted light inactivation, super-resolution microscopy, and 4D (3D plus time) imaging will reveal new insights into plant nuclear and chromosomal dynamics.


Centromere; Chromosome; Chromosome condensation; Endomitosis; Endoreduplication; Nuclear envelope; Nucleolus; Nucleus

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