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Mod Pathol. 2014 Feb;27(2):238-54. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2013.143. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Characteristics of hydatidiform moles: analysis of a prospective series with p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping.

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Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
1] Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA [2] Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
ProPath, Dallas, TX, USA.


Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C, p57, Kip2) expression and molecular genotyping accurately classify hydatidiform moles into complete and partial types and distinguish these from non-molar specimens. Characteristics of a prospective series of all potentially molar specimens encountered in a large gynecologic pathology practice are summarized. Initially, all specimens were subjected to both analyses; this was later modified to triage cases for genotyping based on p57 results: p57-negative cases diagnosed as complete hydatidiform moles without genotyping; all p57-positive cases genotyped. Of the 678 cases, 645 were definitively classified as complete hydatidiform mole (201), partial hydatidiform mole (158), non-molar (272), and androgenetic/biparental mosaic (14); 33 were unsatisfactory, complex, or problematic. Of the 201 complete hydatidiform moles, 104 were p57-negative androgenetic and an additional 95 were p57-negative (no genotyping), 1 was p57-positive (retained maternal chromosome 11) androgenetic, and 1 was p57-non-reactive androgenetic; 90 (85%) of the 106 genotyped complete hydatidiform moles were monospermic and 16 were dispermic. Of the 158 partial hydatidiform moles, 155 were diandric triploid, with 154 p57-positive, 1 p57-negative (loss of maternal chromosome 11), and 1 p57-non-reactive; 3 were triandric tetraploid, with 2 p57-positive and 1 p57-negative (loss of maternal chromosome 11). Of 155 diandric triploid partial hydatidiform moles, 153 (99%) were dispermic and 2 were monospermic. Of the 272 non-molar specimens, 259 were p57-positive biparental diploid, 5 were p57-positive digynic triploid, 2 were p57-negative biparental diploid (no morphological features of biparental hydatidiform mole), and 6 were p57-non-reactive biparental diploid. Of the 14 androgenetic/biparental mosaics with discordant p57 expression, 6 were uniformly mosaic and 8 had a p57-negative androgenetic molar component. p57 expression is highly correlated with genotyping, serves as a reliable marker for diagnosis of complete hydatidiform moles, and identifies androgenetic cell lines in mosaic conceptions. Cases with aberrant and discordant p57 expression can be correctly classified by genotyping.

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