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J Virol. 2013 Oct;87(19):10668-78. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00872-13. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

hsp70-dependent antiviral immunity against cytopathic neuronal infection by vesicular stomatitis virus.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary Biosciences.

Abstract

The major inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) protects against measles virus (MeV) neurovirulence in the mouse that is caused by a cell-associated noncytolytic neuronal infection. Protection is type I interferon (IFN) dependent, and we have established a novel axis of antiviral immunity in which hsp70 is released from virus-infected neurons to induce IFN-β in macrophages. The present work used vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to establish the relevance of hsp70-dependent antiviral immunity to fulminant cytopathic neuronal infections. In vitro, hsp70 that was constitutively expressed in mouse neuronal cells caused a modest increase in VSV replication. Infection induced an early extracellular release of hsp70 from viable cells, and the release was progressive, increasing with virus-induced apoptosis and cell lysis. The impact of this VSV-hsp70 interaction on neurovirulence was established in weanling male hsp70 transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Constitutive expression of hsp70 in neurons of transgenic mice enhanced viral clearance from brain and reduced mortality, and it was correlated with enhanced expression of type I IFN mRNA. Nontransgenic mice were also protected against neurovirulence and expressed increased type I IFN mRNA in brain when hsp70 was expressed by a recombinant VSV (rVSV-hsp70), indicating that hsp70 in the virus-infected cell is sufficient for host protection. In vitro data confirmed extracellular release of hsp70 from cells infected with rVSV-hsp70 and also showed that viral replication is not enhanced when hsp70 is expressed in this manner, suggesting that hsp70-mediated protection in vivo is not dependent on stimulatory effects of hsp70 on virus gene expression.

PMID:
23885078
PMCID:
PMC3807379
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00872-13
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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