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Kidney Int. 2014 Jan;85(1):142-50. doi: 10.1038/ki.2013.271. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Early chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder stimulates vascular calcification.

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Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.


The chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) syndrome is an extremely important complication of kidney diseases. Here we tested whether CKD-MBD causes vascular calcification in early kidney failure by developing a mouse model of early CKD in a background of atherosclerosis-stimulated arterial calcification. CKD equivalent in glomerular filtration reduction to human CKD stage 2 stimulated early vascular calcification and inhibited the tissue expression of α-klotho (klotho) in the aorta. In addition, osteoblast transition in the aorta was stimulated by early CKD as shown by the expression of the critical transcription factor Runx2. The ligand associated with the klotho-fibroblast growth factor receptor complex, FGF23, was found to be expressed in the vascular media of sham-operated mice. Its expression was decreased in early CKD. Increased circulating levels of the osteocyte-secreted proteins, FGF23, and sclerostin may have been related to increased circulating klotho levels. Finally, we observed low-turnover bone disease with a reduction in bone formation rates more than bone resorption. Thus, the CKD-MBD, characterized by cardiovascular risk factors, vascular calcification, increased circulating klotho, FGF23 and sclerostin levels, and low-turnover renal osteodystrophy, was established in early CKD. Early CKD caused a reduction of vascular klotho, stimulated vascular osteoblastic transition, increased osteocytic secreted proteins, and inhibited skeletal modeling producing the CKD-MBD.

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