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East Mediterr Health J. 2013 Apr;19(4):327-32.

Antenatal depression and its predictors in Lahore, Pakistan.

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Department of Community Medicine, Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute and Shaikh Khalfa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.


Mental health is an important but neglected component of reproductive health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for antenatal depression among women attending for antenatal care at an urban tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. In a cross-sectional study, structured questionnaires were filled and screening for depression was done using the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Out of 506 antenatal attendees 126 (24.9%) had no depression (EPDS scores<10), 53 (10.5%) scored 10-12 and 327 (64.6%) had EPDS scores>12. Depression scores (>or=10) were more common in mothers aged<20 years (93.7%) than those aged>35 years (55.0%). Fear of childbirth and separation from husband were identified as significant risk factors for development of antenatal depression, while family history of psychiatric illness was significant protective factor. Domestic violence, drug abuse, lack of support, previous miscarriage and personal history of previous psychiatric illness were not found to be significant risk factors.

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