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Arch Virol. 2014 Jan;159(1):51-63. doi: 10.1007/s00705-013-1790-8. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Nucleotide polymorphisms of the human papillomavirus 16 E1 gene.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Ploutonos 26 & Aiolou, 41221, Larissa, Greece.


The E1 ORF is one of the most conserved regions in the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome. The complete E1 gene of the HPV16 genome was amplified with four overlapping primer sets in 16 high-grade (CIN II, III) and 13 low-grade cervical (CIN I) intraepithelial neoplasias as well as in one cervical cancer case. Sequence analysis of the E6 and E7 genes was also carried out in the same cervical samples in order to confirm the association between nucleotide sequence variations in the HPV16 E1 ORF and HPV16 variant lineages. Analysis of the E1 ORF revealed 27 nucleotide changes, and these changes were correlated with those found in HPV16 Asian American and African type II variants. Of these nucleotide variations, A1668G, G2073A, T2169C, T2189C, A2453T, C2454T, A2587T and G2650A were identified only in high-grade dysplasia cases. A phylogenetic tree of the E1 ORF and nucleotide sequence analysis of the E1, E6 and E7 genes revealed that intratypic nucleotide sequence polymorphisms located in the E1 ORF can be used to identify the major phylogenetic branch to which a HPV16 genome belongs. Moreover, amplification of the E1 ORF revealed a disruption between nucleotides 878 and 1523 in five high- and two low-grade cervical cases, indicating that integration of HPV DNA occurs at an early stage of viral infection.

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