Send to

Choose Destination
Dental Press J Orthod. 2013 Feb 15;18(1):30.e1-6.

Association of breastfeeding, pacifier use, breathing pattern and malocclusions in preschoolers.

Author information

State University of Southwest Bahia.



To evaluate the association of breastfeeding duration, pacifier use and nasal air flow with occlusal disorders among children.


This cross-sectional observational study included 138 children aged 4 and 5 years selected in all the daycare centers of the city of Campo Limpo Paulista, Brazil. Questionnaires were applied to mothers to identify total duration of exclusive breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking. The independent variables were: Sucking (pacifier, bottle, finger), breastfeeding duration and nasal air flow. The dependent variables were: Open bite, crossbite, overjet, overbite, diastema and maxillary deficiency. Frequency distribution calculations were performed, a chi-square test, the Fisher exact test and, after that, stepwise logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, and the level of significance was set at 5%.


The use of a pacifier was the most deleterious factor and increased chances of having open bite in 33.3 times, marked overjet in 2.77 times and posterior crossbite in 5.26 times.


There was a significant association between non-nutritive sucking, particularly the use of a pacifier, and occlusal disorders. These findings are important to plan the treatment of preschoolers.


Breastfeeding; Malocclusion; Primary dentition

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center