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Biomaterials. 2013 Oct;34(32):7819-28. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.07.008. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

Mixed matrix hollow fiber membranes for removal of protein-bound toxins from human plasma.

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Biomaterials Science and Technology, MIRA Institute, Faculty of Science and Technology University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.


In end stage renal disease (ESRD) waste solutes accumulate in body fluid. Removal of protein bound solutes using conventional renal replacement therapies is currently very poor while their accumulation is associated with adverse outcomes in ESRD. Here we investigate the application of a hollow fiber mixed matrix membrane (MMM) for removal of these toxins. The MMM hollow fiber consists of porous macro-void free polymeric inner membrane layer well attached to the activated carbon containing outer MMM layer. The new membranes have permeation properties in the ultrafiltration range. Under static conditions, they adsorb 57% p-cresylsulfate, 82% indoxyl sulfate and 94% of hippuric acid from spiked human plasma in 4 h. Under dynamic conditions, they adsorb on average 2.27 mg PCS/g membrane and 3.58 mg IS/g membrane in 4 h in diffusion experiments and 2.68 mg/g membrane PCS and 12.85 mg/g membrane IS in convection experiments. Based on the dynamic experiments we estimate that our membranes would suffice to remove the daily production of these protein bound solutes.


Blood purification; Hollow fibers; Mixed matrix membranes; Removal of uremic toxins

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