Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Neurosci. 2013 Sep;36(9):543-54. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.06.003. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

Advances in the pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease: targeting neurotransmitter systems.

Author information

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:


For several decades, the dopamine precursor levodopa has been the primary therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, not all of the motor and non-motor features of PD can be attributed solely to dopaminergic dysfunction. Recent clinical and preclinical advances provide a basis for the identification of additional innovative therapeutic options to improve the management of the disease. Novel pharmacological strategies must be optimized for PD by: (i) targeting disturbances of the serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic systems in addition to the dopaminergic system, and (ii) characterizing alterations in the levels of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters that are associated with the various manifestations of the disease.


GABA; Parkinson's disease; acetylcholine; basal ganglia; dopamine; glutamate; norepinephrine; serotonin; striatum; substantia nigra

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center