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Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014 Oct;40(10):1340-9. doi: 10.3109/03639045.2013.819882. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Stimuli-responsive bacterial cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) hydrogels for oral controlled release drug delivery.

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  • 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.


This study evaluated the potential of stimuli-responsive bacterial cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) hydrogels as oral controlled-release drug delivery carriers. Hydrogels were synthesized by graft copolymerization of the monomers onto bacterial cellulose (BC) fibers by using a microwave irradiation technique. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the grafting. XRD showed that the crystallinity of BC was reduced by grafting, whereas an increase in the thermal stability profile was observed in TGA. SEM showed that the hydrogels exhibited a highly porous morphology, which is suitable for drug loading. The hydrogels demonstrated a pH-responsive swelling behavior, with decreased swelling in acidic media, which increased with increase in pH of the media, reaching maximum swelling at pH 7. The release profile of the hydrogels was investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The hydrogels showed lesser release in SGF than in SIF, suggesting that hydrogels may be suitable drug carriers for oral controlled release of drug delivery in the lower gastrointestinal tract.


Bacterial cellulose; controlled release; drug delivery; hydrogels; responsive index

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