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Biochimie. 2014 Jan;96:48-55. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.009. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cytosolic lipid droplets in enterocytes: key players in intestinal physiology and metabolic disorders.

Author information

1
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR S 872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France; Inserm, U 872, Paris, France; Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, UMR S 872, Paris, France; Institut de Cardiométabolisme et Nutrition (ICAN), Paris, France. Electronic address: sylvie.demignot@crc.jussieu.fr.

Abstract

During the post-prandial phase, intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) i.e. chylomicrons are the main contributors to the serum lipid level, which is linked to coronary artery diseases. Hypertriglyceridemia can originate from decreased clearance or increased production of TRL. During lipid absorption, enterocytes produce and secrete chylomicrons and transiently store lipid droplets (LDs) in the cytosol. The dynamic fluctuation of triglycerides in cytosolic LDs suggests that they contribute to TRL production and may thus control the length and amplitude of the post-prandial hypertriglyceridemia. In this review, we will describe the recent advances in the characterization of enterocytic LDs. The role of LDs in chylomicron production and secretion as well as potential previously unsuspected functions in the metabolism of vitamins, steroids and prostaglandins and in viral infection will also be discussed.

KEYWORDS:

ABHD5/CGI-58; ATGL; Apo; CIDE; Chylomicron; Cox-2; DGAT; ER; Enterocyte; HDL; Intestine; LD; LDL; LPCAT; LPS; Lipid droplet; MGAT; MTP; PC; TG; TRL; Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein; UBX domain-containing protein 8/FAS-associated factor 2; UBXD8/FAF2; VLDL; adipose triglyceride lipase; apolipoprotein; cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor 45-like effector; cyclooxygenase-2; diacylglycerol: acylCoA transferase; endoplasmic reticulum; high density lipoprotein; lipid droplet; lipopolysaccharide; low density lipoprotein; lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase; microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; monoacylglycerol: acylCoA transferase; phosphatidylcholine; triglyceride-rich lipoprotein; triglycerides; very low density lipoprotein; α/β hydrolase domain 5/comparative gene identification-58

PMID:
23871915
DOI:
10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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