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Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014 Mar;217(2-3):248-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.06.003. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Maternal periconceptional occupational exposure to pesticides and selected musculoskeletal birth defects.

Author information

1
NYS Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Troy, NY, United States. Electronic address: clk03@health.state.ny.us.
2
NYS Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Troy, NY, United States; University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY, United States.
3
University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY, United States.
4
Upstate Medical University, SUNY, Syracuse, NY, United States.
5
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Cincinnati, OH, United States.
6
Stewart Exposure Assessments, LLC, Arlington, VA, United States.
7
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, Atlanta, GA, United States.
8
University of Iowa School of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Abstract

This population-based U.S. study investigated the association between major musculoskeletal malformations and periconceptional maternal occupational pesticide exposure for a wide range of occupations. We conducted a multi-site case-control analysis using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study among employed women with due dates from October 1, 1997 through December 31, 2002. Cases included 871 live-born, stillborn, or electively terminated fetuses with isolated craniosynostosis, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, or transverse limb deficiencies. Controls included 2857 live-born infants without major malformations. Using self-reported maternal occupational information, an industrial hygienist used a job-exposure matrix and expert opinion to evaluate the potential for exposure to insecticides, herbicides or fungicides for each job held during one month pre-conception through three months post-conception. Exposures analyzed included any exposure (yes/no) to pesticides, to insecticides only, to both insecticides and herbicides (I+H) and to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides (I+H+F). We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposures and defects, controlling for infant and maternal risk factors. Occupational exposure to I+H+F was associated with gastroschisis among infants of women aged 20 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05), but not for women under age 20 (aOR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.20-1.16). We found no significant associations for the other defects. Additional research is needed to validate these findings in a separate population.

KEYWORDS:

Craniosynostosis; Diaphragmatic hernia; Gastroschisis; Maternal occupational exposure; Pesticides; Transverse limb deficiencies

PMID:
23871272
PMCID:
PMC4524544
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.06.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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