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Sci Rep. 2013;3:2231. doi: 10.1038/srep02231.

Two-photon voltage imaging using a genetically encoded voltage indicator.

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RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Hirosawa, Wako-City, 351-0198 Saitama, Japan.


Voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFPs) are a family of genetically-encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) reporting membrane voltage fluctuation from genetically-targeted cells in cell cultures to whole brains in awake mice as demonstrated earlier using 1-photon (1P) fluorescence excitation imaging. However, in-vivo 1P imaging captures optical signals only from superficial layers and does not optically resolve single neurons. Two-photon excitation (2P) imaging, on the other hand, has not yet been convincingly applied to GEVI experiments. Here we show that 2P imaging of VSFP Butterfly 1.2 expresssing pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 reports optical membrane voltage in brain slices consistent with 1P imaging but with a 2-3 larger ΔR/R value. 2P imaging of mouse cortex in-vivo achieved cellular resolution throughout layer 2/3. In somatosensory cortex we recorded sensory responses to single whisker deflections in anesthetized mice at full frame video rate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of GEVI-based functional 2P imaging in mouse cortex.

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