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Neurosurgery. 2013 Nov;73(5):816-24; discussio 824. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000106.

Radiosurgery for primary motor and sensory cortex arteriovenous malformations: outcomes and the effect of eloquent location.

Author information

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Eloquent intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located in the primary motor or somatosensory cortex (PMSC) carry a high risk of microsurgical morbidity.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the outcomes of radiosurgery on PMSC AVMs and compare them with radiosurgery outcomes in a matched cohort of noneloquent lobar AVMs.

METHODS:

Between 1989 and 2009, 134 patients with PMSC AVMs underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery with a median radiographic and clinical follow-up of 64 and 80 months, respectively. Seizure (40.3%) and hemorrhage (28.4%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Pre-radiosurgery embolization was performed in 33.6% of AVMs. Median AVM volume was 4.1 mL (range, 0.1-22.6 mL), and prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 7-30 Gy). Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with obliteration.

RESULTS:

The overall obliteration rate, including magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, after radiosurgery was 63%. Obliteration was achieved in 80% of AVMs with a volume less than 3 mL compared with 55% for AVMs larger than 3 mL. No previous embolization (P = .002) and a single draining vein (P = .001) were independent predictors of obliteration on multivariate analysis. The annual post-radiosurgery hemorrhage risk was 2.5%. Radiosurgery-related morbidity was temporary and permanent in 14% and 6% of patients, respectively. Comparing PMSC AVMs with matched noneloquent lobar AVMs, the obliteration rates and clinical outcomes after radiosurgery were not statistically different.

CONCLUSION:

For patients harboring PMSC AVMs, radiosurgery offers a reasonable chance of obliteration with a relatively low complication rate. Eloquent location does not appear to confer the same negative prognostic value for radiosurgery that it does for microsurgery.

PMID:
23867301
DOI:
10.1227/NEU.0000000000000106
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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