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J Clin Immunol. 2013 Oct;33(7):1165-74. doi: 10.1007/s10875-013-9924-z. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

Autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by a novel NFKBIA mutation, p.Ser36Tyr, presents with mild ectodermal dysplasia and non-infectious systemic inflammation.

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Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.



Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) is characterized by hypohidrosis, dental abnormalities, sparse hair, and immunodeficiency. Autosomal dominant (AD)-EDA-ID, caused by a heterozygous mutation within NFKBIA, is very rare and its clinical features remain largely unknown. This study describes a patient with AD-EDA-ID harboring a novel NFKBIA mutation who presented with mild EDA and non-infectious systemic inflammation.


The clinical presentation of an AD-EDA-ID patient was described and immunological, genetic, and biochemical analyses were performed, with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation.


The patient presented with symptoms of mild EDA-ID, namely sparse hair and hypohidrosis, although a skin biopsy confirmed the presence of sweat glands. There were no dental abnormalities. The patient also suffered from non-infectious inflammation, which responded to systemic corticosteroid therapy; however, the patient remained ill. Immunological analyses revealed reduced Toll-like receptor/IL-1 (TLR/IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family responses to various stimuli. Genetic analysis identified a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, p.Ser36Tyr, in NFKBIA, resulting in defective NFKBIA degradation and impaired NF-κB activation. The patient was diagnosed with AD-EDA-ID and underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Engraftment was successful, with few signs of acute graft versus host disease. However, the patient suffered hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, and died from a brain hemorrhage due to intractable thrombocytopenia.


AD-EDA-ID patients can present with mild ectodermal dysplasia and non-infectious inflammation, rather than with recurrent infections. Also, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for AD-EDA-ID is still a clinical challenge.

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