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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Dec;60(12):3534-41. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2272796. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

Infrared Neural Stimulation: Influence of Stimulation Site Spacing and Repetition Rates on Heating.


A model to simulate heating as a result of pulse repetitions during infrared neural stimulation (INS), with both single- and multiple-emitters is presented. This model allows the temperature increases from pulse trains rather than single pulses to be considered. The model predicts that using a stimulation rate of 250 Hz with typical laser parameters at a single stimulation site results in a temperature increase of 2.3°C. When multiple stimulation sites are used in analogy to cochlear implants, the temperature increases further depending upon the spacing between emitters. However, when the light is more localized at multiple stimulation sites the temperature increase is reduced.

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