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Pharm Biol. 2013 Nov;51(11):1393-400. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2013.793720. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

Protective effects of equol and their polyphenolic isomers against dermal aging: microarray/protein evidence with clinical implications and unique delivery into human skin.

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1
Department of Physiology, Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University , Provo, UT , USA.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Equol is a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule that can be expressed as isomers. However, the characteristics of the equol isomers on dermal gene/protein expression and human skin percutaneous absorption remain unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

Perform a comprehensive investigation on equol as: R-equol, racemic equol or S-equol to determine their differential expression of skin-related genes, quantify collagen expression and determine percutaneous absorption in human skin.

METHODS:

Quantified: (i) gene expression/mRNA levels via gene array technology using human skin equivalents with equol exposure at 1.2% in qPCR experiments, (ii) in vitro collagen expression in human fibroblasts, and (iii) percutaneous absorption by Franz cell techniques.

RESULTS:

In the qPCR studies, only three genes displayed the greatest significant expression by S-equol, whereas 16 genes displayed the greatest significant levels (either stimulation or inhibition) by R-equol and/or racemic equol, such as extracellular matrix proteins (i.e., collagen and elastin), nerve growth factor, aging genes [FOS, 100 A8 and A9 calcium-binding proteins, 5α-reductase type 1, and matrix metalloproteinases (1, 3, and 9)], and inflammatory genes (e.g., interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-1). Collagen type I expression in fibroblasts was greater with racemic versus S-equol treatment at 1 and 10 nM. Percutaneous absorption demonstrated high sequestering in keratinocytes with subsequent accumulation/release over time.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

Overall, these results illustrate the significant differences in mirror-image molecules or isomers of equol where R-equol and/or racemic equol are better molecules for skin gene expression compared to S-equol and the percutaneous absorption of equol represents a unique epidermal reservoir delivery mechanism.

PMID:
23862588
DOI:
10.3109/13880209.2013.793720
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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