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J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2010 May 4;2:9-14. Print 2010.

Decreased Serum Cu/Zn SOD Associated with High Copper in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

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Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, 4575 Weaver Parkway, Warrenville, Illinois 60555, USA. Email:



To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) concentration in children with ADHD and evaluate its possible relationship to Cu and Zn levels.


Serum from 22 children with ADHD and 20 healthy control children without ADHD and 19 autistic children without ADHD were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs and levels of serum Cu and Zn using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.


Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of ADHD children were significantly lower than age and gender matched healthy non-ADHD controls (P < 0.001). Serum Cu/Zn SOD of ADHD children was significantly lower in individuals with high serum copper (P = 0.024). There was no significant correlation between Cu/Zn SOD levels and Zinc or Cu/Zn in ADHD individuals.


These results suggest an association between Cu/Zn SOD serum levels and ADHD, particularly ADHD children with high serum copper.


ADHD; Cu/Zn SOD; copper; super oxide dismutase

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