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Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Jul 4;5:205-17. doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S37071. Print 2013.

Improved understanding of factors driving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic waves.

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Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Since the global spread of MRSA in the 1960s, MRSA strains have evolved with increased pathogenic potential. Notably, some strains are now capable of causing persistent infections not only in hospitalized patients but also in healthy individuals in the community. Furthermore, MRSA is increasingly associated with infections among livestock-associated workers, primarily because of transmission from animals to humans. Moreover, many MRSA strains have gained resistance to most available antibiotics. In this review, we will present current knowledge on MRSA epidemiology and discuss new endeavors being undertaken to understand better the molecular and epidemiological underpinnings of MRSA outbreaks.


MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; community-associated infection; nosocomial infection

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