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J Biol Chem. 2013 Sep 13;288(37):26464-72. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R113.472936. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

Peroxynitrite, a stealthy biological oxidant.

Author information

1
From the Departamento de Bioquímica and Center for Free Radical and Biomedical Research, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay.

Abstract

Peroxynitrite is the product of the diffusion-controlled reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. Peroxynitrite, a reactive short-lived peroxide with a pKa of 6.8, is a good oxidant and nucleophile. It also yields secondary free radical intermediates such as nitrogen dioxide and carbonate radicals. Much of nitric oxide- and superoxide-dependent cytotoxicity resides on peroxynitrite, which affects mitochondrial function and triggers cell death via oxidation and nitration reactions. Peroxynitrite is an endogenous toxicant but is also a cytotoxic effector against invading pathogens. The biological chemistry of peroxynitrite is modulated by endogenous antioxidant mechanisms and neutralized by synthetic compounds with peroxynitrite-scavenging capacity.

KEYWORDS:

Free Radicals; Nitric Oxide; Oxidative Stress; Peroxynitrite; Superoxide Dismutase (SOD); Superoxide Ion; Tyrosine Nitration

PMID:
23861390
PMCID:
PMC3772193
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.R113.472936
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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