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Vaccine. 2013 Sep 13;31(40):4375-81. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.07.008. Epub 2013 Jul 13.

Delivery of synthetic RNA can enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in mice.

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Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, CISA-INIA, Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain.


We have recently described the antiviral effect in mice of in vitro-transcribed RNAs mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome RNA. These small, synthetic and non-infectious RNA molecules (ncRNAs) are potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers in vivo. In this work, the immunomodulatory effect of the ncRNA corresponding to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) on immunization with two different FMD vaccine formulations, both based on inactivated virus, including or not a commercial adjuvant, was analyzed in the mice model. The effect of the time interval between RNA inoculation and immunization was also studied. RNA delivery consistently increased the titers of specific anti-FMDV antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, elicited after vaccination. Moreover, at day 2 after immunization, significant differences in mean antibody titers could be detected between the groups of mice receiving either vaccine co-administered with the RNA and the control group, unlike those immunized with the vaccine alone. When vaccinated mice were challenged with FMDV, the mean values of viral load were lower in the groups receiving the RNA together with the vaccine. Our results show the enhancing effect of the IRES RNA on the immune response elicited after vaccination and suggest the potential of this molecule as an adjuvant for new FMD vaccine design.


FMD vaccine; FMDV; IRES; PAMP; PRR; RNA delivery; Vaccine adjuvant; WNV; West Nile virus; foot-and-mouth disease virus; internal ribosome entry site; ncRNA; non-coding RNA; pathogen-associated molecular pattern; pattern-recognition receptor

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