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Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(5):625-32. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2013.795983.

Soy food consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis using a common measure across studies.

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Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203-1738, USA.


A published meta-analysis pooled individual studies by using the study-specific odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) for the highest vs. lowest category of soy or isoflavone intake from each study, but it should be problematic to make comparison between studies/populations for lung cancer risk as the quantiles are so different from different studies/populations. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the association between exposure of estimated daily soy protein intake in grams and lung cancer risk. We extracted ORs or RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), converted them to the estimated ones for daily soy protein intake and pooled them using fixed or random effects models from 11 epidemiologic studies. Overall, the inverse association between daily grams of soy protein intake and risk of lung cancer was borderline statistically significant (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.00); the inverse association was statistically significant in nonsmokers (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99) and stronger than in smokers (P for difference <0.05). No statistical significance for the associations was observed between genders, the origin of the participants, study design and types of soy intake. This study suggests a borderline reduction in risk of lung cancer with daily soy protein intake in grams, and a significant inverse association in nonsmokers.

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