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Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013 Jul;17(13):1839-44.

Should ureteroscopy be considered as the first choice for proximal ureter stones of children?

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Department of Urology, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey.



In this study, we aimed to analyze the ureter stones that had been treated using rigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy without mechanically dilating the ureteral orifice.


Records of 110 patients who had undergone rigid ureteroscopy and pneumatic lithotripsy due to ureteral stone between February 2005 and May 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The location and size of the stone and additional anomalies in the urinary tract on the preoperative direct urinary system (DUS) X-Ray, urinary system ultrasonography (USG), intravenous pyelography (IVP) if performed, and computed tomography (CT), were found from the records of the patients.


The mean age of the patients was 5.2 (range 1-17 years). 74 (67.2%) of the patients were males and 36 (32.8%) were females. A total of 115 rigid ureteroscopies were performed on 110 patients. 72 (65%) of the stones were located in the lower ureter, 21 (19%) were located in the middle part of the ureter, and 17 (15.4%) were located in the upper ureter. The mean stone size was determined as 7.5 mm (range 5-15). The mean stone size was determined as 7.4 mm in the lower ureter, as 8.3 mm in the middle ureter, and 8.4 mm in the upper ureter. No difference was found between the sizes of the stones in different locations (p = 0.121). The stone free rate was found as 92.2% for all ureteral stones. The total stone free rate according to the location of the stones was determined as 79.2% in the upper ureter, as 94.4% in the middle ureter and 93,8% in the lower ureter (p = 0.022). The total complication rate was 7.6%. Complication rates were 7.2%, 4.1% and 10.7% for the lower, middle and upper ureter, respectively (p = 0.411) (Table I). No difference was found in terms of complication rates according to location of the stone in the ureter. No major perioperative or postoperative complications developed. A double J stent was inserted in 36 (32%) patients for 2-3 weeks.


We suggest that rigid ureteroscopy may be considered as the first choice for treatment of not only distal-middle ureter stones, but also for proximal ureter stones.

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