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Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Jan;10(1):115-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.01.013. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

The future of blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Nordic Bioscience Biomarkers and Research, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Herlev, Denmark. Electronic address: kh@nordicbioscience.com.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
4
Institute on Aging, Alzheimer's Disease Core Center, Udall Parkinson's Research Center, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
5
Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
6
NextGen Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
7
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Goteborg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden.
8
DiaGenic ASA, Oslo, Norway.
9
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
10
Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, CT, USA.
11
King's College London, Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London, UK.
12
Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
13
Nordic Bioscience Biomarkers and Research, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Herlev, Denmark.
14
Departments of Medicine, Radiology, Psychiatry, and Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Abstract

Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is significantly hampered by the lack of easily accessible biomarkers that can detect disease presence and predict disease risk reliably. Fluid biomarkers of AD currently provide indications of disease stage; however, they are not robust predictors of disease progression or treatment response, and most are measured in cerebrospinal fluid, which limits their applicability. With these aspects in mind, the aim of this article is to underscore the concerted efforts of the Blood-Based Biomarker Interest Group, an international working group of experts in the field. The points addressed include: (1) the major challenges in the development of blood-based biomarkers of AD, including patient heterogeneity, inclusion of the "right" control population, and the blood-brain barrier; (2) the need for a clear definition of the purpose of the individual markers (e.g., prognostic, diagnostic, or monitoring therapeutic efficacy); (3) a critical evaluation of the ongoing biomarker approaches; and (4) highlighting the need for standardization of preanalytical variables and analytical methodologies used by the field.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; Blood; Plasma; Serum

PMID:
23850333
PMCID:
PMC4128378
DOI:
10.1016/j.jalz.2013.01.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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