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AIDS Res Ther. 2013 Jul 13;10(1):19. doi: 10.1186/1742-6405-10-19.

Impact of tuberculosis on mortality among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: a prospective cohort analysis.

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Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.



Tuberculosis (TB) disease affects survival among HIV co-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, the magnitude of TB disease on mortality is poorly understood.


Using a prospective cohort of 22,477 adult patients who initiated ART between August 2000 and June 2009 in Uganda, we assessed the effect of active pulmonary TB disease at the initiation of ART on all-cause mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to control for potential confounding. Stratification and covariate adjustment for PS and not PS-based multivariable Cox models were also performed.


A total of 1,609 (7.52%) patients had active pulmonary TB at the start of ART. TB patients had higher proportions of being male, suffering from AIDS-defining illnesses, having World Health Organization (WHO) disease stage III or IV, and having lower CD4 cell counts at baseline (p < 0.001). The percentages of death during follow-up were 10.47% and 6.38% for patients with and without TB, respectively. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality comparing TB to non-TB patients using 1,686 PS-matched pairs was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 - 1.75), less marked than the crude estimate (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.49 - 2.04). The other PS-based methods and not PS-based multivariable Cox model produced similar results.


After controlling for important confounding variables, HIV patients who had TB at the initiation of ART in Uganda had an approximate 37% increased hazard of overall mortality relative to non-TB patients.

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