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Cell Death Dis. 2013 Jul 11;4:e715. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.222.

ER stress-mediated apoptosis induced by celastrol in cancer cells and important role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the signal network.

Author information

1
Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, PR China.

Abstract

HeLa cells treated with celastrol, a natural compound with inhibitive effect on proteasome, exhibited increase in apoptotic rate and characteristics of apoptosis. To clarify the signal network activated by celastrol to induce apoptosis, both the direct target proteins and undirect target proteins of celastrol were searched in the present study. Proteasome catalytic subunit β1 was predicted by computational analysis to be a possible direct target of celastrol and confirmed by checking direct effect of celastrol on the activity of recombinant human proteasome subunit β1 in vitro. Undirect target-related proteins of celastrol were searched using proteomic studies including two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis and iTRAQ-based LC-MS analysis. Possible target-related proteins of celastrol such as endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERP29) and mitochondrial import receptor Tom22 (TOM22) were found by 2-DE analysis of total cellular protein expression profiles. Further study showed that celastrol induced ER stress and ER stress inhibitor could ameliorate cell death induced by celastrol. Celastrol induced translocation of Bax into the mitochondria, which might be related to the upregulation of BH-3-only proteins such as BIM and the increase in the expression level of TOM22. To further search possible target-related proteins of celastrol in ER and ER-related fractions, iTRAQ-based LC-MS method was use to analyze protein expression profiles of ER/microsomal vesicles-riched fraction of cells with or without celastrol treatment. Based on possible target-related proteins found in both 2-DE analysis and iTRAQ-based LC-MS analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established using bioinformatic analysis. The important role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in the signal cascades of celastrol was suggested. Pretreatment of LiCL, an inhibitor of GSK3β, could significantly ameliorate apoptosis induced by celastrol. On the basis of the results of the present study, possible signal network of celastrol activated by celastrol leading to apoptosis was predicted.

PMID:
23846217
PMCID:
PMC3730400
DOI:
10.1038/cddis.2013.222
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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