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J Gastric Cancer. 2013 Jun;13(2):106-10. doi: 10.5230/jgc.2013.13.2.106. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Goiter frequency is more strongly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma than urine iodine level.

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Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



We designed our study to evaluate the hypothesis that gastric cancer is correlated with iodine deficiency or thyroid dysfunction.


We investigated the total body iodine reserve, thyroid function status and autoimmune disorder in 40 recently diagnosed gastric adenocarcinoma cases versus 80 healthy controls. The participants came from a region with high gastric cancer rate but sufficient iodine supply due to salt iodination. The investigation included urine iodine level, thyroid gland clinical and ultrasonographic examination, and thyroid function tests.


Goiter was detected more frequently in the case group (P=0.001); such a finding, however, was not true for lower than normal urine iodine levels. The free T3 mean level was significantly lower in the case group compared to the control group (P=0.005).


The higher prevalence of goiter rather than low levels of urinary iodine in gastric adenocarcinoma cases suggests that goiter, perhaps due to protracted but currently adjusted iodine deficiency, is more likely to be associated with gastric adenocarcinoma compared to the existing iodine deficiency itself.


Autoimmune diseases; Goiter; Iodine; Stomach neoplasms; Thyroid function tests

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