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PLoS One. 2013 Jul 2;8(7):e67836. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067836. Print 2013.

Treatment with oral active vitamin D is associated with decreased risk of peritonitis and improved survival in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

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Department of Internal Medicine IV, Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.


Peritonitis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) being associated with hospitalization, catheter loss, technique failure, and increased mortality. Data on incidence rates and risk factors for peritonitis episodes vary between centers. In seven Austrian PD units clinical and laboratory data on each peritonitis episode were collected from all patients (n = 726) who performed PD between January 2000 and December 2009. The peritonitis incidence rate was 0.32 episodes/patient-year. In a multivariate analysis the risk of peritonitis was decreased by 57% in patients treated with oral active vitamin D (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.28-0.64). Renal disease classified as "other or unknown" (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.08-2.53) and serum albumin <3500 mg/dl (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.04-2.15) were also associated with an increased risk of peritonitis. Albumin levels <3500 mg/dl (HR 1.89; 95% CI 1.13-3.17), age (HR 1.06 per year; 95% CI 1.03-1.09), and cardiomyopathy (HR 3.01; 95% CI 1.62-5.59) were associated with increased mortality, whereas treatment with oral active vitamin D was associated with a significantly lower risk of death (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.27-0.81). In this retrospective multi-center study we identified several factors being related to increased risk of peritonitis in PD patients. Treatment with oral active vitamin D was identified as being independently associated with decreased risk of peritonitis, and decreased all-cause mortality in PD patients.

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