Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2013 Jul 2;8(7):e67809. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067809. Print 2013.

Impact of multiple cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima-media thickness and elasticity.

Author information

Paul C Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.



Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and elasticity have been shown to be independent predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) includes hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, overweight and smoking. The objective was to investigate whether the clustering of three or more components of CVRFs has a greater impact on carotid IMT and elasticity than individual components of CVRFs.


One hundred and seventy-three participants without clinical CVD were classified as the multiple CVRFs patients with three or more CVRFs (n = 55) and control group with two or less CVRFs (n = 118). Carotid IMT and elastic modulus were measured by B-mode ultrasound and vessel texture matching method (VTMM), respectively.


The multiple CVRFs conferred a disproportionate increase in carotid IMT (43%, p<0.0001) and elastic modulus (60%, p<0.0001), compared with control group. Multiple regression models, which included age, gender, as well as each individual component of CVRFs as continuous variables, showed that multiple CVRFs was an independent determinant of both IMT (p = 0.042) and elasticity (p = 0.008). In the analysis of variance adjusted with age, subjects with single, double, and multiple CVRFs, increased by 8.1%, 42.2%, and 66% for IMT, 54.6%, 94.3%, and 125.2% for elastic modulus, respectively, compared to subjects without CVRFs.


The clustering of multiple CVRFs has a greater impact on carotid IMT and elasticity than individual components of CVRFs. This suggests that the components of CVRFs interact to synergistically impact carotid IMT and elasticity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center