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Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):603-10. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5037. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

In vitro inhibition of human CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 by six herbs commonly used in pregnancy.

Author information

1
Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.

Abstract

Black elderberry, cranberry, fennel, ginger, horsetail, and raspberry leaf, herbs frequently used in pregnancy, were investigated for their in vitro CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 inhibitory potential. Aqueous or ethanolic extracts were made from commercially available herbal products, and incubations were performed with recombinant cDNA-expressed human CYP enzymes in the presence of positive inhibitory controls. Metabolite formation was determined by validated LCMS/MS or HPLC methodologies. IC50 inhibition constants were estimated from CYP activity inhibition plots using non-linear regression. The most potent inhibition was shown for fennel towards CYP2D6 and 3A4 with respective IC50 constants of 23 ± 2 and 40 ± 4 µg/ml, horsetail towards CYP1A2 with an IC50 constant of 27 ± 1 µg/ml, and raspberry leaf towards CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A4 with IC50 constants of 44 ± 2, 47 ± 8, and 81 ± 11 µg/ml, respectively. Based on the recommended dosing of the different commercial herbal products, clinically relevant systemic CYP inhibitions could be possible for fennel, horsetail, and raspberry leaf. In addition, fennel and raspberry leaf might cause a clinically relevant inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4. The in vivo inhibitory potential of these herbs towards specific CYP enzymes should be further investigated.

KEYWORDS:

CYP inhibition; cytochrome P450; herb-drug interactions; herbal product; in vitro; pregnancy

PMID:
23843424
DOI:
10.1002/ptr.5037
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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