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Nephrology (Carlton). 2013 Oct;18(10):690-9. doi: 10.1111/nep.12128.

Fluorofenidone inhibits nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate oxidase via PI3K/Akt pathway in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis.

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Division of Nephropathy, Department of Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.



Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis. The nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) family is considered one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of a novel anti-fibrotic agent, Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD), upon Nox-mediated oxidative stress and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the development of renalinterstitial fibrosis.


AKF-PD was used to treat renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) obstructive nephropathy in rats. The expression of Nox homologues, p-Akt, collagen I and III were detected by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. Levels of 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso PGF2a) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, ROS and the expression of collagen I (1a), Nox subunits and p-Akt was measured in angiotensin (Ang) II-stimulated rat proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells in culture.


AKF-PD treatment significantly attenuated tubulo-interstitial injury, ECM deposition and oxidative stress in fibrotic rat kidneys. In addition, AKF-PD inhibited the expression of ROS, Collagen I (1a), Nox2, p-Akt in Ang II-stimulated NRK-52E cells.


AKF-PD attenuates the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis partly by suppressing NADPH oxidase and ECM deposition via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, suggesting AKF-PD is a potential novel therapeutic agent against renal fibrosis.


Akt; fluorofenidone; nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate oxidase; renal interstitial fibrosis

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