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Diabetes Ther. 2013 Dec;4(2):331-45. doi: 10.1007/s13300-013-0030-2. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of multiple rising doses of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Profil Institut für Stoffwechselforschung GmbH, Hellersbergstrasse 9, 41460, Neuss, Germany,



This study examined the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of empagliflozin, a potent and highly selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


A total of 48 patients with T2DM were randomized to receive one of four doses of empagliflozin (2.5, 10, 25, or 100 mg qd) or placebo over 8 days. In every dose group, nine patients received active drug and three received placebo. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were measured as secondary endpoints.


Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak levels 1.5-3.0 h after dosing and showed a biphasic decline. The mean terminal elimination half-life ranged from 10 to 19 h. Increases in exposure (area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC] and maximum concentration of analyte in plasma [C max]) were approximately proportional with dose. Empagliflozin increased the rate and total amount of glucose excreted in urine compared to placebo. After administration of a single dose of empagliflozin, cumulative amounts of glucose excreted in urine over 24 h ranged from 46.3 to 89.8 g, compared with 5.84 g with placebo. Similar results were seen after multiple doses. Fasting plasma glucose levels decreased by 17.2-25.8% with empagliflozin and by 12.7% with placebo. The frequency of adverse events was 33.3-66.7% with empagliflozin and 41.7% with placebo. There were no changes in urine volume or micturition frequency under the controlled study conditions.


Overall, pharmacokinetic assessments demonstrated a dose-proportional increase in drug exposure and support once-daily dosing. Elevated urinary glucose excretion was observed with all doses. Multiple once-daily oral doses of empagliflozin (2.5-100 mg) reduced plasma glucose and were well tolerated in patients with T2DM. EudraCT (2007-000654-32).

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