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Chemosphere. 2013 Nov;93(9):1796-803. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.019. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the urban atmosphere.

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Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Public Health and Environment, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in air has been well known as the indicator of photochemical smog due to its frequent occurrences in Seoul metropolitan area. This study was implemented to assess the distribution characteristics of atmospheric PAN in association with relevant parameters measured concurrently. During a full year period in 2011, PAN was continuously measured at hourly intervals at two monitoring sites, Gwang Jin (GJ) and Gang Seo (GS) in the megacity of Seoul, South Korea. The annual mean concentrations of PAN during the study period were 0.64±0.49 and 0.57±0.46 ppb, respectively. The seasonal trends of PAN generally exhibited dual peaks in both early spring and fall, regardless of sites. Their diurnal trends were fairly comparable to each other. There was a slight time lag (e.g., 1 h) in the peak occurrence pattern between O3 and PAN, as the latter trended to peak after the maximum UV irradiance period (16:00 (GJ) and 17:00 (GS)). The concentrations of PAN generally exhibited strong correlations with particulates. The results of this study suggest that PAN concentrations were affected sensitively by atmospheric stability, the wet deposition of NO2, wind direction, and other factors.


O(3); PAN; Photochemical smog; VOCs

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