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Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2013 Jun 26;5:281-7. doi: 10.2147/CEOR.S44625. Print 2013.

The costs of traumatic brain injury: a literature review.

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Swansea Centre for Health Economics, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Wales, UK.



The purpose of this study was to review the literature relating to the psychosocial costs associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI).


Nine online journal databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and PUBMED, were queried for studies between July 2010 and May 2012 pertaining to the economic burden of head injuries. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications and using Google internet search engine.


One hundred and eight potentially relevant abstracts were identified from the journal databases. Ten papers were chosen for discussion in this review. All but two of the chosen papers were US studies. The studies included a cost-benefit analysis of the implementation of treatment guidelines from the US brain trauma foundation and a cost-effectiveness analysis of post-acute traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.


Very little research has been published on the economic burden that mild and moderate traumatic brain injury patients pose to their families, careers, and society as a whole. Further research is needed to estimate the economic burden of these patients on healthcare providers and social services and how this can impact current health policies and practices.


burden; costs; economics; head trauma; post concussional syndrome; traumatic brain injury (TBI)

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