Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Immunol. 2013 Aug 15;191(4):1948-56. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1202092. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

Primary vascularization of allografts governs their immunogenicity and susceptibility to tolerogenesis.

Author information

  • 1Transplantation Unit and Transplantation Biology Research Center, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.


We investigated the influence of allograft primary vascularization on alloimmunity, rejection, and tolerance in mice. First, we showed that fully allogeneic primarily vascularized and conventional skin transplants were rejected at the same pace. Remarkably, however, short-term treatment of mice with anti-CD40L Abs achieved long-term survival of vascularized skin and cardiac transplants but not conventional skin grafts. Nonvascularized skin transplants triggered vigorous direct and indirect proinflammatory type 1 T cell responses (IL-2 and IFN-γ), whereas primarily vascularized skin allografts failed to trigger a significant indirect alloresponse. A similar lack of indirect alloreactivity was also observed after placement of different vascularized organ transplants, including hearts and kidneys, whereas hearts placed under the skin (nonvascularized) triggered potent indirect alloresponses. Altogether, these results suggest that primary vascularization of allografts is associated with a lack of indirect T cell alloreactivity. Finally, we show that long-term survival of vascularized skin allografts induced by anti-CD40L Abs was associated with a combined lack of indirect alloresponse and a shift of the direct alloresponse toward a type 2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-10)-secretion pattern but no activation/expansion of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Therefore, primary vascularization of allografts governs their immunogenicity and tolerogenicity.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center