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Curr Urol Rep. 2013 Oct;14(5):448-56. doi: 10.1007/s11934-013-0354-5.

From physiology to pharmacy: developments in the pathogenesis and treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections.

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Department of Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis; Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8230, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, and over half of women report having had at least one in their lifetime. Nearly a third of these women experience recurrent UTI episodes, but the mechanisms of these recurrences are not fully elucidated. Frequent use of antimicrobials for treatment and prevention of UTIs and other infections has contributed to the evolution of multidrug-resistant microorganisms globally. This is a looming worldwide crisis that has created an urgent need for novel strategies for the treatment and prevention of UTIs. Furthering our understanding of the mechanisms of recurrent UTIs, from both host and bacterial perspectives, will be paramount in developing targeted management strategies. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding recurrent UTIs in women, including progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of recurrence as well as emerging treatments.

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