Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur Radiol. 2013 Dec;23(12):3271-7. doi: 10.1007/s00330-013-2954-3. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Multi-detector spiral CT study of the relationships between pulmonary ground-glass nodules and blood vessels.

Author information

Department of Radiology, Huadong Hospital Fudan University, 221 West Yan'an Road, Shanghai, 200040, China.



To investigate the relationships between pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGN) and blood vessels and their diagnostic values in differentiating GGNs.


Multi-detector spiral CT imaging of 108 GGNs was retrospectively reviewed. The spatial relationships between GGNs and supplying blood vessels were categorized into four types: I, vessels passing by GGNs; II, intact vessels passing through GGNs; III, distorted, dilated or tortuous vessels seen within GGNs; IV, more complicated vasculature other than described above. Relationship types were correlated to pathologic and/or clinical findings of GGNs.


Of 108 GGNs, 10 were benign, 24 preinvasive nodules and 74 adenocarcinomas that were pathologically proven. Types I, II, III and IV vascular relationships were observed in 9, 58, 21 and 20 GGNs, respectively. Type II relationship was the dominating relationship for each GGN group, but significant differences were shown among them. Correlation analysis showed strong correlation between invasive adenocarcinoma and type III and IV relationships. Subgroup analysis indicated that type III was more commonly seen in IAC with comparison to type IV more likely seen in MIA.


Different GGNs have different relationships with vessels. Understanding and recognising characteristic GGN-vessel relationships may help identify which GGNs are more likely to be malignant.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer
    Loading ...
    Support Center