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Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013 Sep;70:396-402. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.06.009. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Impacts of acute ozone stress on superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in rice leaves.

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Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.


Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant harmful to plants and animals. Its rapid increase at the ground surface has raised serious concern over damage to the quality and yield of agricultural crops. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in plant cells when that are exposed to a high concentration of ozone, and the ROS are thought to alter gene expression and result in cellular death. Clarification of the ROS formation will provide us with a better understanding of the physiological responses to and signaling pathways of ozone stress in plants. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the ROS formation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the premier crop in Asia. To determine ROS distribution in rice leaves under acute ozone stress, we analyzed superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, lipid peroxidation, NADPH oxidase activity, and in vivo H2O2 formation. Interestingly, chloroplastic, peroxisomal and mitochondrial SODs down-regulated their expression levels under ozone stress, whereas cytosolic SODs maintained their expression level. Higher lipid peroxidation occurred after the end of ozone exposure, which suggests lipid peroxidation may not be due to ozone directly, but rather to metabolic changes caused by the ozone exposure. Activity of NADPH oxidase did not show significant change. The in vivo analysis indicated accelerated formation of H2O2 about 24 h after the onset of exposure, which suggests that cellular death occurred around this time.


Hydrogen peroxide; MDA; Oryza sativa; Ozone; Reactive oxygen species; Superoxide dismutase

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