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Bioresour Technol. 2013 Sep;143:538-48. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.06.029. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Simulation and optimization of ammonia removal at low temperature for a double channel oxidation ditch based on fully coupled activated sludge model (FCASM): a full-scale study.

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School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012, China.


An optimal operating condition for ammonia removal at low temperature, based on fully coupled activated sludge model (FCASM), was determined in a full-scale oxidation ditch process wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The FCASM-based mechanisms model was calibrated and validated with the data measured on site. Several important kinetic parameters of the modified model were tested through respirometry experiment. Validated model was used to evaluate the relationship between ammonia removal and operating parameters, such as temperature (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), solid retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time of oxidation ditch (HRT). The simulated results showed that low temperature have a negative effect on the ammonia removal. Through orthogonal simulation tests of the last three factors and combination with the analysis of variance, the optimal operating mode acquired of DO, SRT, HRT for the WWTP at low temperature were 3.5 mg L(-1), 15 d and 14 h, respectively.


Ammonia removal; Full-scale; Fully coupled activated sludge model (FCASM); Low temperature; Numerical optimization

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