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Exp Parasitol. 2013 Sep;135(1):175-81. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.06.012. Epub 2013 Jul 4.

Identification and expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in Sarcoptes scabiei.

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Oklahoma State University, Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA.


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced by many mammalian tissues including skin. It is also found in many invertebrate parasites of mammals including ticks and may function to aid the parasite to evade the innate and adaptive immune responses in the host. In this study, the cDNA for a MIF gene was sequenced from Sarcoptes scabiei, the scabies mite, using RT-PCR and RACE molecular techniques. The resulting nucleotide sequence had a length of 405 base pairs and the putative amino acid sequences for the mite and tick (Dermacentor variabilis) proteins were identical. The initial steps for the project resulted in the production of expressed scabies mite cDNAs. A real time (qPCR) assay was performed with MIF from scabies mites and various tick species. Results show that mRNA encoding MIF homologues was three times more abundant in the mite samples when compared to RNA prepared from D. variabilis salivary glands and 1.3 times more abundant when compared with RNA prepared from D. variabilis midgut.


Dermacentor variabilis; Macrophage migration inhibitory factor; Sarcoptes scabiei; Scabies; Tick

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