Send to

Choose Destination
Crit Care Clin. 2013 Jul;29(3):651-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.03.012.

Toxic shock syndrome: major advances in pathogenesis, but not treatment.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 600 University Avenue, Room 1487, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.


Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is primarily the result of a superantigen-mediated cytokine storm and M protein-mediated neutrophil activation, resulting in the release of mediators leading to respiratory failure, vascular leakage, and shock. Mortality for streptococcal TSS still hovers at 50%. There is evidence to support a role for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of streptococcal TSS. An observational study suggests that an initial conservative surgical approach combined with the use of immune modulators, such as IVIG, may reduce the morbidity associated with extensive surgical exploration in hemodynamically unstable patients without increasing mortality.


Cytokine storm; Group A streptococcus; Necrotizing fasciitis; Staphylococcus aureus; Superantigen; Toxic shock syndrome

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances

Publication type

MeSH terms


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center