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Chemosphere. 2013 Oct;93(6):1104-10. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.025. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Effects of estrone on the early life stages and expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor genes of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

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Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Nanchen Rd 333, Baoshan District, Shanghai 200444, PR China. Electronic address:


The fertilized eggs of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to estrone (E1) at 5-5000 ng L(-1) for 15 d, and the hatched fry were exposed continuously to the same concentrations for the additional 15 d. Adverse effects on hatchability, time to hatching, and gross abnormalities occurred at 50 ng L(-1) or above. Then the fry were divided into a continual exposure group, and a water recovery group. When the fry were exposed to E1 for another 60 d, there was a decrease in the hepatosomatic index (HSI) of males and the influence disappeared in the water recovery group. The gonadosonatic index (GSI) of females at 500 ng L(-1) decreased significantly in another 60 d exposure. While the fry were maintained in dechlorinated tap water for 60 d, a significant decrease in female GSI was observed at 50 ng L(-1) or above. An increased GSI was found in males in both continual exposure and water recovery groups at all E1 treatments. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that vitellogenin-I (Vtg-I) gene expressions in the female liver were significantly down-regulated at 50 ng L(-1) in the continual exposure group, and at 500 ng L(-1) in the water recovery group, while male Vtg-I genes were significantly up-regulated for all E1 treatments. In addition, all E1 treatments caused sex reversal of males. These results suggest that E1 at 5 ng L(-1) or above have unrecoverable impacts on the gonadal growth and development of medaka, even if only early life stages were exposed to E1.


Early life stage; Estrogen receptor gene; Estrone; Oryzias latipes; Vitellogenin gene; Water recovery group

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